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Timeline of Major Historical Moments in Turkey

1,200,000 BCEHuman ancestors migrate to Anatolia in present-day Asian Turkey
7500-5700 BCEÇatal Höyük: Neolithic civilization in southern Anatolia
3000-700 BCECity of Troy: Anatolian kingdom in present-day Hisarlik, Turkey
2500-2000 BCEHatti: Hattian civilization in central Anatolia develop the Hittite culture
2400-2150 BCEAkkadian Empire: The Mesopotamian kingdom expands into southeast Turkey
1950-1750 BCEAssyria: Mesopotamian kingdom expands into southeast Turkey
1650-1450 BCEKizzuwatna: Highland kingdom in southeastern Anatolia
1680-1220 BCEHittite Empire: Kingdom in north-central Anatolia
1000 BCEThracian culture develops in present-day European Turkey
1500-1320 BCEArzawa Kingdom: Confederation of city-states in western Anatolia
1500-1300 BCEKingdom of Mitanni: Kingdom in southeastern Anatolia
1450-350 BCELycia: Civilization in southern Anatolia
1300-1250 BCEAssuwa: Confederation of city-states in western Anatolia
1250 BCETrojan War: According to mythology, Greece invades & destroys the kingdom of Troy
1200-800 BCEDiauehi: Coalition of kingdoms in northeastern Anatolia
1200-800 BCENeo-Hittite States: Southern Anatolian city-states with the capital in Tuwanuwa (present-day Cappadocia)
1200-700 BCEPhrygia: Kingdom in central Anatolia
1150-547 BCECaria: Greek states in southwestern Anatolia
1100-560 BCEDorian Hexapolis: Federation of six cities in southwestern Anatolia
1000 BCEThracian culture develops in present-day European Turkey
1000-560 BCEAeolis: Federation of Greek cities in western Anatolia
1000-545 BCEIonia: Federation of Greek settlements along the coast of central Anatolia
859-590 BCEKingdom of Urartu: Arawat Kingdom in Anatolia
800 BCEGreeks establish colonies in Thrace
685-547 BCELydian Kingdom: Western Anatolian kingdom; in develops from the Arzawa confederation
667 BCE-324Byzantium: Greeks found the city of Byzantium within the Greek colonies of present-day Turkey
605-549 BCEMedian Empire: Persian empire expands into eastern Anatolia
547-331 BCEAchaemenid Empire: Persian Empire defeats the Lydian kingdom in Turkey
480 BCE-46Odrysian Kingdom: Confederation of Tracian tribal kingdoms in present-day European Turkey
334-133 BCEHellenistic Anatolia: The Macedonian Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Achaemenid Empire & Anatolia is partitioned into small kingdoms
332 BCE-17Kingdom of Cappadocia: Cappadocia is established in former site of Hatti in Anatolia. The kingdom expands until Rome annexes it as a province
331-1 BCEArmenian Empire: Armenian kingdom extends into south-eastern Turkey
305-64 BCESeleucid Empire: Alexander the Great's general expands his Hellenistic empire into Turkey
246-30 BCEPtolemaic Kingdom: The Hellenistic Ptolemaic kingdom of Egypt expands into Turkey
189-63 BCEPontic Empire: Persian kingdom of Pontus expands into northern Anatolia
282-133 BCEKingdom of Pergamon: Hellenistic kingdom that is later bequeathed to the Roman Republic
276-64 BCEGalatia: Gaul & Thracian city-state in the highlands of central Anatolia
138 BCE-27Roman Republic: Anatolia is annexed as a Roman Republic & divided into provinces
27-330Roman Principate: Anatolia becomes a principate of the Roman Empire
37 BCE-224Parthian Empire: Iranian empire expands into east-central Turkey
46-670Thracia: Thrace becomes a province of the Roman Empire
298-628Sassanian Empire: The Persian empire expands into the former Parthian empire
324-1453Byzantine Empire: Constantine reunites the Eastern Roman Empire & renames Byzantium to Constantinople to serve as the capital
637-656Rashidun Caliphate: Islamic caliphate takes control of the former Sassanian Empire in Turkey
1037-1194Seljuk Empire: Seljukall Turks establish an empire that expands from eastern Anatolia to central Asia & the Persian Gulf
1081-1423Anatolian Beyliks: Turkish principalities are established in Anatolia
1098-1150County of Edessa: Crusader state in present-day Şanlıurfa, Turkey
1101-1409Artuqid State: Turkish dynasty is established in eastern Anatolia
1203-1204Fourth Crusade: Crusaders defeat Constantinople resulting in the fall of Byzantine power
1204-1461Empire of Trebizond: The exiled Byzantine aristocracy establishes the Greek state of Trebizond in northeastern Anatolia following the Fourth Crusade
1204-1261Empire of Nicaea: The exiled Byzantine aristocracy establishes the Greek state of Nicaea in present-day İznik following the Fourth Crusade
1204-1261Latin Empire: Crusaders establish a feudal Crusader state following the fall of the Byzantine Empire
1256-1335Ilkhanate: The Mongol Empire takes control of central & eastern Turkey
1299-1922Ottoman Empire: A Turkish warrior chieftain gradually unites Anatolia & Thrace & founds the Ottoman Empire
1375-1468Kara Koyunlu: A federation of Shi'a Oghuz Turkish tribes is established & rules over regions of eastern Turkey
1378-1501Ak Koyunlu: A federation of Sunni Oghuz Turkish tribes is established & rules over regions in eastern Turkey with frequent clashes with the Kara Koyuniu
1453The Ottoman Empire conquers Constantinople & the Byzantine Empire & uniting the Ottoman-controlled Asia Minor & Balkans
1918-1923Following WWII, the Allied forces occupy & divide the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire loses all non-Turkish territory
1919-1922Turkish War of Independence: Series of battles between Turkish nationalists & occupying Allied forces in the Ottoman Empire
1923-presentRepublic of Turkey: A Turkish military officer Mustafa Kemal founds the republic of Turkey, overthrowing the Ottoman sultan. Kemal is called Atatürk, meaning Father of the Turks
1923-1930Atatürk becomes the president of Turkey's one-party republic. Atatürk enacts a series of reforms, including state secularization
1930Constantinople is renamed Istanbul
1945-presentMulti-party period
1952Turkey joins NATO
2005Lira becomes the official currency of Turkey