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Timeline of Major Historical Moments in Italy

850,000 BCEHuman ancestors migrate to Italy
43000 BCEThe first modern humans arrive in Italy
1800-238 BCENuragic Civilization: The Nuragicwarrier tribes of Sardinia established villages with fortresses & dolmens
1050 BCEThe Phoenician alphabet is developed from Egyptian hieroglyphics & becomes the earliest known alphabet. Phoenician merchants spread the alphabet throughout Europe, Asia & Africa
768-264 BCEEtruscan Civilization: Etruscan culture developed writing & a theocratic government before assimilating into the Roman Empire
753-509 BCEKingdom of Rome: Rome is legendarily founded by twins Romulus & Remus
509-27 BCERoman Republic: Rome's monarchy is overthrown & the Senate-led Roman republic grows to encompass all of the Mediterranean
46-44 BCEJulius Caesar serves as a Roman dictator
27 BCE-395Roman Empire: Caesar's adopted son Augustus becomes the first emperor of Rome. The empire expands & strengthens power throughout Europe, Africa, Asia & the Middle East
476-1494Middle Ages: The Roman empire collapses & city-states emerge
800-1806Holy Roman Empire: Italy & Germany unite in a single monarchy that is heavily influenced by the Pope & Church
1346-1353An outbreak of the Black Death plague kills half of the population
1330-1550Italian Renaissance: The Medici family in Florence begins to sponsor works of art & architecture, which spurs an intellectual & cultural movement that spreads throughout Italy & Europe. Great achievements are also made in science, literature, philosophy, music & political thought
1494-1559Italian Wars: Procession of power disputes between the Italian city-states, the Papal States, other Western European states & the Ottoman Empire
1814-1861Unification: Nationalist movement to unify the Italian states
1861-1946Kingdom of Italy: Italy is unified as a monarchy
1915-1918WWI: Italy enters the war as part of the Allied forces
1922-1943Fascist Italy: Fascist founder Benito Mussolini establishes a authoritarian dictatorship in Italy. Mussolini sanctions the systemic persecution, deportation & genocide of Slovenes & Italian Jews
1936Mussolini & Germany join to form the Axis
1940-1943WWII: Italy joins the Axis powers
1943-1945Italian Social Republic: Mussolini is ousted & Italy becomes a Nazi puppet state as the Italian Civil War is fought between the Italian resistance groups against the Fascist regime
1946-presentItalian Republic
1955Italy joins the UN (United Nations)
1957Italy becomes a founding member of the EEC (European Economic Community)
1984Catholicism is removed as Italy's official national religion
1991Hikers discover Ötzi, Europe's oldest natural mummy, on the border between Italy & Austria