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Timeline of Major Historical Moments in Ethiopia

2,800,000+ BCEFirst-known emergence of early hominids in eastern Ethiopia
300,000 BCEModern humans appear
700-400 BCED'mt Kingdom develops in norhtern Ethiopia & Eritrea
400 BCE-940Aksumite Kingdom: Axum emerges from the D'mt Kingdom & unites Ethiopia's northern Highlands before expanding south. Axum's trade dominance makes it 1 of the 4 great world powers of the 1st century, along with Rome, Persia & China
328Coptic Christianity is introduced in Ethiopia
341The Ethiopian Orthodox Church is founded & Axum becomes the first major empire to officially convert to Christianity
615Muslim refugees are granted asylum in Axum & establish Negash settlement
960-1270Zagwe Dynasty is established in the northern Highlands
1255The Kebra Negast is published. The book records accounts of the Queen of Sheba, King Soloman & the Ark of the Covenent
1270-1529Solomonic Dynasty develops in the Abyssinian Highlands
1522-1594Great Oromo Migrations: Waves of Oromo people arrive in Ethiopia from Kenya & Somolia
1529-1543Abyssinian-Adal War: Muslim forces invade & conquer Ethiopia's Abyssinian Kingdom
1632-1769Gondar Period: Gondar becomes the capital of the Christian Ethiopian Kingdom. Ethiopian philosophy flourishes, as does architecture of churches & palaces
1855-1913Modern Ethiopia develops through 3 powerful emperors: Tewodros I, Yohannis IV & Menelik II
1888-1892Evil Days: Known locally as Kefu Qan, a drought & cattle plague result in one of Ethiopia’s most brutal famines
1889Addis Ababa replaces Gondar to become Ethiopia's 4th capital
1895Italy invades Ethiopia
1896Ethiopian forces defeat Italy at the Battle of Adwa, making it the only African country not to be colonized during the Scramble for Africa. Italy continues to control Eritrea
1930Coffee becomes one of Ethiopia's major crops & exports
1935-1941Italian East Africa: Italy takes power in Ethiopia, forcing Emperor Haile Salassie to flee & joining Ethiopia, Eritrea & Italian Somaliland
1941British & Ethiopian troops defeat Italy & Selassie retakes the throne, annexing Eritrea
1942Selassie abolishes slavery
1950University College of Addis Ababa is founded
1952United Nations establishes Eritrea as a Ethiopian federation
1961-1991Selassie annexes Eritrea as an Ethiopian province, kicking off the 30-year Eritrean Struggle for Independence
1963Addis Ababa becomes the headquarters of the African Union
1973-1974Famine kills an estimated 200,000 people in the province of Wallo
1974Lucy," a 3.2-million-year-old Australopithecine hominid, is discovered in Afar's Awash Valley
1974-1991Communist Era: The Derg overthrows & kills Selassie & executes 59 former government members
1977-1979Red Terror: The Derg genocide kills an estimated 500,000 Ethiopians
1977-1978Somalia invades the region of Ogaden region but are defeated by Soviet, Cuban & Ethiopian troops
1984-1985Droughts & famine kill an estimated 1 million people
1988A peace treaty is signed by Ethiopia & Somalia
1992Haile Selassie's remains are discovered under a palace toilet. He is reburied in 2000 at Addis Ababa's Trinity Cathedral
1994Ethiopia is consitutionally divided into ethnically-based regions
1998-2000Border Wars: An estimated 70,000 people are killed in conflicts between Ethiopia & Eritrea before a peace treaty is signed
2004The Anuak kill almost 200 people during ethnic clashes in Gambella
2005Allegations of a rigged general elections cause widespread protests. More than 60,000 people are arrested & 42 people killed by Ethiopian police
2008Italy returns the remainder of the looted 1700-year-old Axum Obelisk
2016Human right protests are held from Oromia to Amhara, killing hundreds of civilians
2016Britain, the EU & the World Bank announce a project to create 100,000 jobs in Ethiopia