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Timeline of Major Historical Moments in Estonia

9000 BCEFirst settlements appear along the Baltic coast & develop Kunda culture
4900 BCENarva & Pit–Comb Ware cultures develop
1800 BCEFinnics & Balts establish first fortified settlements
700 BCEMeteorite hits Saaremaa Island forming the Kaali craters
98First recorded mention of "Estonia," likely named after the Est inhabitants, aka the Chudes
50-450Roman Iron Age in Estonia: Roman cultural influence
600Swedish Vikings establish fortifications in Hiiumaa
800-1200Viking Age: Series of raids between Estonian & Swedish Vikings against the Danish & Icelandic Vikings
967Estonian pirates kidnap the Norwegian Queen Astrid & her son, the future king
1193-1290Livonian Crusades: Series of crusades eventually see Christianity replace paganism. Estonia becomes one of the last countries to convert
1206-1343Danish Rule:
1227Last indigenous pagan stronghold is conquered in Saaremaa & the ecclesiastical state of Terra Mariana is established
1343Estonian uprising results in the Catholic military Teutonic Order gaining power of the region
1520-1600Protestant Reformation in Estonia: Lutheranism slowly spreads from the ruling Baltic Germans
1559-1645Danish Rule
1561Livonian War: Russia fights for control of Old Livonia (present-day Estonia & Latvia) & is defeated by the allied Denmark-Norway, Sweden, Lithuania & Poland
1645-1721Swedish Rule
1721-1918Russian Rule
1750-1840Estonian Enlightenment Era
1850-1918National Awakening: Revitalization of Estonian ethnic, cultural & national identity
1861Estonia's national epic poem, Kalevipoeg, is published
1889-1917Russification: Government pushes for Russian assimilation of Baltic & German culture through Russian-language schools
1918Estonia declares independence
1922Estonia joins the League of Nations
1940Soviet occupation
1941Nazi Germany invasions
1944-1991Soviet Estonia: Estonia becomes part of the Soviet Union & mass deportations of Estonians to Siberia & Central Asia begin
1998Estonian becomes Estonia's national language
1991Singing Revolution
1991Estonia's independence is restored
2003Skype is co-founded in Estonia
2004Estonia joins the NATO
2004Estonia joins the EU (European Union)
2011The Euro becomes Estonia's national currency