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Timeline of Major Historical Moments in Canada

30,000–15,000 BCEHunter-gatherer people cross Bering landbridge from Siberia into northwest Canada
1000Norse Vikings establish settlement in Newfoundland
1497Explorer John Cabot lands on Atlantic coast & claims territory for England
1534Explorer Jacques Cartier lands & claims Quebec region for France
1600sFur Trade popularlizes with France, England & Dutch forming individual alliances with local tribes
1701Peace Treaty is signed in Montreal between France & 38 indigenous tribal leaders
1756-1763Seven Years' War: Conflict between French & British colonies over territory from Virginia in the South to Newfoundland in the north. It was part of the larger French & Indian War of 1754-1763
1763The Treaty of Paris divvies up the New World between Great Britain, France, Spain & Portugal. France cedes all of its North American territory to England, & New France becomes Quebec
1774Quebec Act formalizes French as the colony's official language, Roman Catholicism as the official religion, & French civil law as the basis of government
1812War of 1812: British defeat U.S. forces & Canada remains a British Commonwealth
1873The Mounted Police (aka Mounties) are organized
1896Gold found in Klondike, kicking off Canadian Gold Rush along Yukon River
1905Alberta and Saskatchewan become 8th & 9th provinces of Canada
1949Canada becomes founding member of NATO
1949Newfoundland becomes final Canadian province. Present-day Yukon, Nunavut & Northwest Territories remain territories
1960The first Tim Hortons opens in Ontario, Canada
1965The maple leaf flag replaces British-inspired flag
1976Summer Olympics are held in Montreal
1982Canada is granted full autonomy from the UK, but remains a British Commonwealth realm
1988Winter Olympics are held in Calgary
1994NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) signed by Canada, Mexico and the U.S.
1999Nunavut is officially created as a self-governing territory with an indigenous majority population
2010Winter Olympics are held in Vancouver