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Timeline of Major Historical Moments in Botswana

100,000 BCESan (Bushman) & Khoi (Hottentot) people inhabit Botswana region
200-1000Bantu people expand into region
1000Toutswe chiefdoms are established between Sowa Pan & Tswapong Hills. Tswana culture emerges
1300Tswana tribe branches into Bakgalagadi, the Batswana & Basotho
1400-1600Great Zimbabwe Empire expands into eastern Botswana, conquering Toutswe chiefdoms
1700s & 1800sSlave and ivory trade in Botswana. Tribal kings take neighboring tribes captive and sell them to slave traders
1700sTswana tribes split again to form into present-day divisions: Bakhurutshe, Bangwato, Bakwena, Bangwaketse, Bakgatla, Batlhokwa, Barolong, Batlhaping & Batawana
1800sEuropeans and Americans settle missionary communities in an effort to convert Batswana to Christianity. By 1880 there was a resident missionary in every major tribal village
1815-1840Zulu chief conquers smaller tribes and consolidates them to form a powerful warring Zulu Kingdom, kicking off the Mfecane (Difaqane) tribal wars. The fighting spreads from southern Africa through Botswana, killing many Tswana people
1841The Scottish Dr. Livingston arrives in Botswana as a medical missionary & slave abolitionist. He establishes a mission station in Kolobeng
1867Gold prospectors arrive from Europe
1885Botswana territory becomes a British protectorate. It's named Bechuanaland
September 6, 1966Bechuanaland is granted independence & renamed the Republic of Botswana
1967Diamonds are discovered in village of Orapa. The diamond mine becomes the largest in the world. Botswana's impoverished economy flourishes
1995Government forcefully relocates Basarwa bushmen from their homeland in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve
2010Human rights group demands boycott of Botswana diamonds in response to Basarwa displacement
2013De Beers Diamonds moves operations to Gaborone from London
2014Botswana court rules that the government must recognize the LGBTQ community and cannot ban them from forming interest groups